General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)

The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is the first multilateral, legally binding set of rules covering international trade in services.The GATS came in January 1995 as part of the WTO.The operation of the GATS are the responsibility of the Council for Trade in Services, consisting of representatives of all WTO members.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) has been supplanted as an international organization for the World Trade Organization.An updated General Agreement is now one of the WTO agreements.See “World Trade Organization”

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a comprehensive free trade agreement that are into Canada, Mexico and the United States, established on January 1, 1994.Its goals include: removing barriers to trade in, and facilitate the movement of goods and services across borders, to promote conditions of fair competition, increase investment opportunities, and provide sufficient protection and effective application of intellectual property rights, create effective processes for implementation and enforcement of the Agreement, for its joint administration and dispute resolution, and establish a basis for further trilateral cooperation, regional and multilateral levels. http://www.nafta-sec-alena.org

Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)

The Heads of State and Government of the 34 democracies in the hemisphere at the Summit of the Americas held in Miami in 1994, agreed to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), which will be progressively eliminated barriers to trade and investment , and the conclusion of the negotiations by 2005. http://www.ftaa-alca.org

The Latin American Integration Association (ALADI)

The Association of Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) was established by the Treaty of Montevideo in August 1980 and became operational in March 1981.The Association seeks to foster economic cooperation among its members, including through the implementation of regional trade agreements and sectoral agreements.Members (12) include: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.ALADI replaced the Latin-American Free Trade Agreement, which was established in 1960 with the aim of developing a common market in Latin America. http://www.aladi.org

Interamerican Development Bank (IDB)

Created in 1959, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) supports economic and social development and regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean.It does so mainly through lending to public institutions, but also funds private projects, typically in infrastructure and development of capital markets.Members include: Germany, Argentina, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Denmark, El Salvador, Ecuador, Slovenia, Spain, United States, Finland, France , Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Holland, Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, United Kingdom, Dominican Republic, Sweden and Switzerland, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. http://www.iadb.org

Trade capacity building

Development and improvement of basic skills and the capacity of countries in the trade area through technical cooperation and other assistance in order to optimize their participation in negotiations, implement their trade commitments and the challenges for maximizing the benefits of integration hemisphere.See “Hemispheric Cooperation Program,”

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)

Created in December 1966, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) aims to promote the progressive harmonization and unification of international commercial law.Members (36) include: Germany, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Argentina (alternating annually with Uruguay), Austria, Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, China, Singapore, Colombia, Spain, United States, Russian Federation , Fiji, France, Honduras, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Morocco, Mexico, Paraguay, Kenya, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Romania, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand and Uganda. http://www.uncitral.org

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) is one of the five UN regional commissions.It was created for the purpose of contributing to economic development in Latin America, through the coordination of actions in support of this, and strengthen economic relations between countries and with other nations in the world.Promoting the region’s social development was later included among its main objectives.Members (41) include: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Spain, United States, France, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Holland, Honduras, Italy, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Dominican Republic, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela, associate members, Anguilla, Aruba, Bonaire, Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Montserrat. http://www.eclac.org

Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC)

As part of the Free Trade Area of the Americas, the Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC), supervises and manages the process of negotiation of the FTAA at vice-ministerial level.The CNC is responsible for guiding the work of negotiating groups and special committees of the FTAA and to decide on the general structure of the agreement and institutional issues.

Tripartite Committee

The Tripartite Committee composed of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the Organization of American States (OAS) and United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).It provides analytical, technical and financial support to the FTAA process and maintains the official FTAA web page.Each of the institutions of the Tripartite Committee also meets the requests for technical assistance related to FTAA issues, particularly the smaller economies in the hemisphere.

Andean Community (CAN)

Once known as the Andean Group (founded in 1969) and as the Andean Common Market, the Andean Community (CAN) is a subregional organization made ??up of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela and the bodies and institutions that make up the System Integration Andina.The key objectives of the Andean Community are to promote the balanced and harmonious development of member countries under equitable; stimulate growth through integration and economic cooperation and social participation in improving the regional integration process with the aim of progressive education a Latin American common market, strive for a gradual improvement in living standards of its habitants. http://www.comunidadandina.org

Community and Common Market (CARICOM)

CARICOM is a group of 15 member countries created by the Treaty of Chaguaramas in 1973 to promote economic integration through the free flow of goods and operational cooperation in education and health.The Treaty was revised in 2001 to market a common economic union, the Common Market and the Caribbean Economy (CSME), which provides for free movement of goods, services, capital and manpower, the coordination of macroeconomic policies and harmonization of laws and institutions.Member countries (15) are: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago.The Bahamas is a member of the Community but not of the Common Market.Sound included in Associate Members (3): Anguilla, Turk and Caicos Islands and British Virgin Islands. http://www.caricom.org

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Created in December 1964, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) aims to increase the integration of developing countries in the world economy.UNCTAD is the focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development and related issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development.Members (191) includes all UN members plus the Holy See.  http://www.unctad.org

Economic Cooperation in Asia and the Pacific (APEC)

Founded in November 1989, Economic Cooperation Asia-Pacific (APEC) is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Pacific Rim.The members of APEC (21) are Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Philippines, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Russia, Thailand, Taiwan and Vietnam. http://www.apecsec.org.sg

Summit of the Americas

The Summits of the Americas, which began after the first Summit of the Americas in December 1994, brings together the Heads of State and Government of the Western Hemisphere to discuss common concerns, seek solutions and build a shared vision of the future development of the region, economic, social or political. http://www.summit-americas.org

National strategies for trade capacity building

In the context of the Hemispheric Cooperation Program of the FTAA, some countries have developed national or regional strategies that define, prioritize, and articulate their needs related to strengthening its capacity to: prepare for negotiations, implement trade commitments and adjusting to integration.To facilitate coordination and sharing experiences, strategies follow a common format that was developed by the Consultative Group on Smaller Economies, with the help of the Tripartite Committee.

Forum of the Americas Trade and Sustainable Development

Side event held by various civil society organizations regarding the meeting of Ministers Responsible for Trade in the Hemisphere participating in the negotiations of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).  http://www.miami.edu/nsc/pages/FTAA.html

Of the Americas Business Forum (ABF)


Implementation Review Group (SIRG))

Side event held by the private sector in relation to the meeting of Ministers Responsible for Trade in the Hemisphere participating in the negotiations of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).  http://www.abfmiami2003.com

Measures to facilitate business

The Implementation Review Group (SIRG) was established in March 1995 with the objective of coordinating and implementing the mandates of the Miami Plan of Action.The GRIC consists of 34 democratically elected governments in the hemisphere, which are represented by their appointed National Coordinators.The GRIC is responsible for reporting annually the progress made ??in meeting the Plan of Action to the Foreign Ministers. Ministers review the information at the time of the Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly.In the context of the FTAA, set of measures adopted by the Ministers Responsible for Trade Ministerial Meeting in Toronto on November 4, 1999.Of them contains a series of eight measures related to customs and ten measures related to transparency, including, respectively, in Annex II and Annex III of the Ministerial Declaration of Toronto.  http://www.ftaa-alca.org/ministerials/minis_e.asp

Central American Common Market (CACM)

The Central American Common Market was created on December 13, 1960 when Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua signed the General Treaty on Central American Economic Integration.Costa Rica acceded on 23 July 1962.In October 1993, the five CACM countries signed the Guatemala Protocol, which amended the General Treaty of 1960.The Protocol redefines the objectives, principles and stages of economic integration, and calls members to establish a customs union.More specifically, the Guatemala Protocol calls on states to implement the Free Trade Area of the MCCA by the gradual elimination of tariffs and trade barriers, provide national treatment to intra-regional trade and the adoption of a regional legal framework that charges rules of origin, safeguards, unfair trade practices, intellectual property, services, sanitary and phyto-sanitary and technical standards and rules.  http://www.sieca.org.gt

Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR)

The Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) was created by the Treaty of Asuncion on March 26, 1991.Between 1991 and 1995, MERCOSUR members Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, were involved in a series of negotiations to establish a common external tariff, which took place on January 1, 1995.The deadline for full implementation of the customs union to all members in all sectors is 2006.The new release of the integration process of MERCOSUR in 2000 required a closer macroeconomic coordination and other issues of priority to the strengthening of institutions, the common external tariff, resolution of disputes, trade remedies and competition policy, and investment incentives. Chile and Bolivia became associate members in, respectively, in 1996 and 1997. http://www.mercosul.org.uy

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) groups 30 member countries in a unique forum to discuss, develop and refine economic and social policies.It was established in December 1960 and came into operation in September 1961.Members (30) incloem Germany, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, South Korea, Denmark, Slovakia, Spain, United States, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico Norway, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Sweden, Switzerland and
Turkey.  http://www.oecd.org

Organization of American States (OAS)

On April 30, 1948, the Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS) was adopted by 21 nations in the hemisphere.Affirmed their commitment to common goals and respect for the sovereignty of each nation.Since then, the OAS has expanded to include the Caribbean nations and Canada.Through the process of the Summit of the Americas, the Heads of State and Government of the hemisphere have given important responsibilities and mandates to the OAS, including: human rights, participation of civil society, to improve cooperation to address the problem of illegal drugs, to support the process to create the Free Trade Area of the Americas, education, justice and security.Members (35) include: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (excluded from formal participation since 1962), Dominica, El Salvador, Ecuador, the United States, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. http://www.oas.org

World Customs Organization (OMA)

Founded in 1952 as the Customs Cooperation Council, the Council adopted the working name World Customs Organization (OMA) in 1994 to more clearly reflect its transition to a truly global intergovernmental institution.The OMA is an independent intergovernmental body whose mission is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of customs administrations worldwide.With 159 member countries, is the only intergovernmental worldwide organization competent in customs matters. http://www.wcoomd.org

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Founded in 1967, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is an international organization dedicated to promoting the use and protection of literary, artistic and scientific.WIPO is one of the 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations.It administers 23 international treaties dealing with different aspects of intellectual property protection.The Organization has 179 member countries.http://www.wipo.org

World Trade Organization (WTO)

The World Trade Organization succeeded the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) on January 1, 1995.It is the only multilateral organization that serves as a negotiating forum for trade liberalization, an authority to oversee the implementation of multilateral trade rules and compromising accepted and a forum for resolving trade disputes.The WTO is to promote the liberalization and expansion of international trade in goods and services under certain conditions and predictable.The WTO has 146 members.  http://www.wto.org

Web site of the FTAA

Official webpage of the Free Trade Area of the Americas – http://www.ftaa-alca.org

Hemispheric Cooperation Program (HCP)

The Hemispheric Cooperation Program (HCP) aims to strengthen the capacity of countries seeking assistance to participate in the FTAA negotiations, implement their trade commitments, and address the challenges and maximize the benefits of hemispheric integration, including productive capacity and competitiveness in the region.The program inclói a mechanism to help these countries develop national strategies and / or to enhance regional capacity building in trade that define, prioritize and articulate their needs and programs that pursue these strategies, and identify sources of financial and non- financial support to meet those needs.The HCP has been endorsed by the FTAA Ministers Responsible for Trade meeting in Quito in November 2002. http://www.ftaa-alca.org/ministerials/quito/minist_e.asp

Tariff Elimination Program

Tariff elimination schedules of the parties to a trade agreement.
Ministerial meeting
The regular meeting of Ministers Responsible for Trade of the 34 countries participating in the Free Trade Area of the Americas.
Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations
Begun in September 1986 in Punta del Este, Uruguay, the eighth round of multilateral trade negotiations agenda covered a wide range covering many new trade policy issues.The resulting agreement, concluded in December 1993 and signed in April 1994, extended the multilateral trading system into several new areas, notably trade in services and intellectual property rights, and bring the important sectors of agriculture and industry textiles under multilateral trade rules.The result of the Uruguay Round was the establishment of the World Trade Organization in January 1995.  http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_ e/tif_e/fact5_e.htm

Treatment differences in levels of development and size of economies

Principle which provides countries with different levels of size and development the possibility to get a different treatment in the context of the FTAA negotiations.Principles for this treatment are detailed in the document the Trade Negotiations Committee entitled “Principles and Guidelines for the Treatment of the Differences in Levels of Development and Size of Economies.


European Union (EU)

The European Union (EU) consists of fifteen member states through a series of common institutions where decisions on specific matters of joint interest are taken at a European.It was founded as the European Community after the Second World War to enhance cooperation in political, economic and social among its members.The “single market”, adopted in 1992 through the Treaty of nationals in 12 EU countries, along with a European Central Bank, appeared on January 1, 2002.Member states (15) are Germany, Austria, Belgium, Maastricht, is the center of the current European Union.It covers the freedom of movement for goods, services, capital and people and is underpinned by a variety of support policies.A common currency “Euro”, which replaced the old currencies Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Sweden and the UK.Ten new member countries were invited for ¬ to join the EU on 1 May 2004: Cyprus, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Czech Republic. http://europa.eu.int